Dental caries implies a pathological process of destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth. A characteristic sign of this disease is the appearance of yellowish-brown spots on the tooth enamel, as well as bad breath, increased sensitivity of the dental nerves to sweet, sour, cold and hot food.
Common factors in the development of caries are a lack of vitamins and minerals, somatic diseases, harmful environmental factors, heredity. Local factors include plaque, pulp condition, deviations in the biochemical composition of tooth tissues, the influence of the composition of cleaning agents, the state of the protective mechanisms of tooth tissues and their stability.
As a preventive measure, oral hygiene is distinguished, which consists in cleaning hard-to-reach areas of the oral cavity from food residues. In addition, proper nutrition, which includes all the necessary micro- and macroelements, will not hurt. One of the most important aspects of the prevention of dental diseases is the sanitation of the oral cavity, which includes: examination of the oral cavity, treatment of both milk and permanent teeth, treatment of affected mucous membranes, correction and deformation of teeth.
Methods of caries treatment include invasive and non-invasive procedures. Non-invasive methods involve the treatment of the initial stage of caries. Their essence is to restore the mineral balance, treatment with the help of preparations from mineral-containing substances. The methods of their application are different: from rubbing a fluoride-containing gel to the introduction of calcium and fluoride preparations into the tooth tissue using electrophoresis. Invasive methods of treatment of caries of the middle and deep stages are used when the process of caries formation penetrates into the deeper layers of tooth tissues. Treatment of tooth tissues at these stages is carried out: with the help of a drill, using a laser beam, air-jet treatment, ozone therapy.